THE END OF THE WORLD
Day 5 - At Sea

LOS CURSOS DE INGLES GRATIS PREFERIDOS POR LOS HISPANOHABLANTES

 

FROM SAILS TO STEAM

Read this paragraph
about the history of ships,
and put the verbs in brackets
in the SIMPLE PAST.

For centuries sail power (move) the people of the world. While ship designs improved and sail plans changed, seamen (be) always at the whims of the wind. In 1820 the little sailing packet, Savannah, was fitted with a steam engine and made the first powered crossing of the Atlantic, although sails were used more than the paddle wheels. 

It was not until 1840 that a regular transatlantic steamship line (begin). The Britannia introduced service between England and America and soon the name of "Samuel Cunard" would be known around the world. By the 1860's there were numerous "steam packet companies", some more successful than others. At times a good clipper ship (can) still cross faster than a steamer. For the remainder of the 19th century, ships (get) larger and paddle wheels (give) way to a propeller, but sails were still carried. Early steam engines were not very reliable and often the sails (be) needed to get the vessel back to port. 

The 1890's (see) a true transition from sails to steam. Larger ships had two propellers and more powerful engines. Sails were carried but now they (be) more for tradition than function. In 1889 the beautiful liner, City of Rome, (have) masts with sails and a clipper bow. At the same time Cunard was building the Campania and Lucania. The largest liners of their day, these ships had huge funnels and the "Ocean Liner" design that would be seen on the Atlantic for the next 50 years.

 

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