Listen to this extract from a radio programme
presenting writers Lesley Morris and Wendy Johnson who have just
published two interesting books about tourism. At this first step,
just listen for general comprehension. Then try to answer these two
questions below. Finally check the correct answers.
Lesley Morris' book about?
What is Wendy Johnson's book about?
At this second step, pay close
attention to what it is said because you will have to do a special listening activity on the next page without checking the
Now listen again to Lesley Morris and
Wendy Johnson's interview while you check the transcription of their
The first ever package holiday took place on July 5th 1841. It was an
away-day to Loughborough from Leicester. A train was chartered for its
passengers to attend a religious festival. The whole trip, for 570 people, was
organised by a then unknown man, Thomas Cook.
Lesley Morris has written Package Tourists about the origins of the package
tour. Wendy Johnson is author of a book about famous women travellers, Wandering
Women. Lesley, have people always travelled or did it really only start in the
Oh no, they always travelled but the difficulty was that people
only really went for reasons of war, or for business, or on a pilgrimage. I
mean, there are records of 15th century women going off on pilgrimages and more
or less going by themselves, but it was incredibly difficult to do apart from
Wendy, some of the women that you've uncovered did make extraordinary
expeditions early on.
They did, yes. There were the great British women travellers,
like Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who went off to Turkey in 1716, thereby
scandalising society; or Lady Hester Stanhope, who wandered round the Middle
East, describing herself as 'Queen of the Desert'. But I think it all began back
in the 4th century when an abbess from Spain went to what she called 'right to
the other end of the earth' – it was in fact to Jerusalem – it was, as Lesley
said, on a pilgrimage. But, erm, once she was there she became the most
enthusiastic tourist: she took an excellent guidebook with her, er, which was
the Bible, and she engaged a rather enterprising tour guide, who took her round
some of the famous places mentioned there. She did all the usual things that a
tourist would do even now.
And Lesley, how did package travel take off after this Loughborough
experience? – which I suppose wasn't really a package holiday, although it was
the first charter ...
Mmm, the first charter, yes. Well, in fact Thomas Cook organised
excursions after that. He took tourists to Scotland, he took them to the seaside
resorts, and he had this belief that the earth was there for people to enjoy.
And he really believed that. So the working man could go, if he paid money into
the working club, and he took wife and children and all the rest of it.
wasn't until about 1855 that we have a record, when Mathilda Lincoln went on a
trip to Germany and France and Belgium and then - she went with her brother and
two sisters - and she records in her diary that, er, many of her friends thought
it was far too adventurous to go to countries that were not under the British
flag. But she said that 'we could venture anywhere with such a guide and
guardian as Mr Cook, for there was not one of our party who did not feel
perfectly safe when under his care.'
And from that time on, package tours began
to take off. There weren't, er, many of them and it must have taken, well, quite
brave women to go, I think - I think most of them were waiting to get married -
but they went, sometimes with relatives, and gradually they began to travel more
and more until eventually most of the package trips of the late 19th century
were women, in fact travelling by themselves.
Thomas Cook respected women
travellers actually, for their courage and determination. For example, in the
1890s, with the, the great cycling craze, he actually promoted cycling trips for
women, single women. As long as they took a friend with them they could go off
to Europe cycling, which, was er, pretty daring when actually you couldn't go
shopping by yourself, you had to go shopping in London with a companion in those
There were also independent women travellers at this time, weren't
there, Wendy – apart from the packages, I mean?
Mm, yes. Lesley was saying a lot of Cook's tourists were ladies
who were waiting to get married. But a lot of the independent travellers were
women who had decided that probably they were too old to get married. They were
the unmarried daughters who had done their domestic duty and when their parents
died, they had perhaps received some money and they had little else to do at
home, so why not go abroad? And that's what they did, in great numbers.
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