Curso First Certificate Exam

LOS CURSOS DE INGLES GRATIS PREFERIDOS POR LOS HISPANOHABLANTES

 

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Word linking

 

REMEMBER THIS: In written English each word is separated from the next, but in spoken English words are linked together by sound.

Native English speakers mark out the phrases of their speech for their listeners, so that the listeners can move from one sense unit to the next. Within each of these sense units, wherever possible, they join the words together to move smoothly from one word to the next. You should try to develop this feature. Some foreign speakers of English don't join any words together, while others add vowels between every word. Neither of these is good practice.

Control of the basic features of word linking (as practised below) is one aspect of pronunciation on which candidates will be assessed in Paper 5.

As with all features of pronunciation, improvement is something that comes over time with repeated practice. One way to improve this feature is to remember common phrases (e.g. compound nouns, verb phrases, time phrases, names and titles, idioms, other common fixed phrases) as one sound unit, e.g. a three-hour exam; it must have been her; at the end of the day; the Queen of England; how do you do?; I don't feel like eating, etc.

There are also many phrases with of, e.g. the middle of the night; a glass of wine; a drop of water; a pair of scissors; full of hope; out of order, etc. Good pronunciation of these phrases also involves use of weak forms as you have already seen in Unit 8 Lesson 30.

Here are six of the most important ways of linking words together by sound. Please, practise repeating at least twice each case:

 

CASE 1 Consonant to vowel

 

The consonant at the end of the first word links to the vowel at the beginning of the next. Click on PLAY and listen carefully!!

This  is beautiful !!

What's that  in English?

Say that  again.

 

CASE 2 Vowel (rounded lips) to vowel

 

A linking /w/ is added between the two vowels. Click on PLAY and listen carefully!!

So  it is.

No  it's not.

They threw  everything.

 

CASE 3 Vowel (stretched lips) to vowel

 

A linking /j/ is added between the two vowels. Click on PLAY and listen carefully!!

What's the  English for ... ?

The  ancient kingdom.

They  all sailed.

 

CASE 4 "r" to vowel

 

The /r/ is pronounced, where before a consonant it often wouldn't be, e.g. four times, tea or coffee. Click on PLAY and listen carefully!!

Four  of his chiefs.

Or  are you saying that ... ?

Of their  own.

Some British speakers, especially those who speak RP, don't pronounce /r/ if it's on its own or followed by a consonant.

What does 'RP' stand for?
For many years, the use of Received Pronunciation (RP) was considered to be a mark of education. It was a standard practice until around the 1950s for university students with regional accents to modify their speech to be closer to RP. As a result, at a time when only around five percent of the population attended universities, elitist notions sprang up around it and those who used it may have considered those who did not to be less educated than themselves. Historically the most prestigious British educational institutions (Cambridge, Oxford, etc.) were located in England, so those who were educated there would pick up the accents of their peers.

 

CASE 5 Consonant to "h"

 

The /h/ is dropped: the consonant at the end of the first word links to the vowel at the beginning of the next word. Click on PLAY and listen carefully!!

And then  he went out.

People  have been taking things.

You mean  he actually had to.

 

CASE 6 Consonant to same consonant

 

The two consonants become one. Click on PLAY and listen carefully!!

Of that  time.

The lake's  still full !!

The famous  ceremony.

 

Word linking - Part 2

And now, for further practice, try to do this activity.

ACTIVITY 402: Are the museums in your country free, or do you have to pay to visit them? Do you think museums should be free, or that people should have to pay to get in? Let us listen to Mark's opinion on the subject. Listen to what Mark says and fill in the ten missing words. Then check your answers.

'I think that museums that concerned with national culture should be free for the people of that nation. Such museums are part of the national heritage, and so should be without charge, to . If, on the hand, it's a specialist of museum, one that's interest to only a few, then I suppose it's right if people to pay to get in.'

 
 

¡¡¡ Has tenido una de tus prácticas más intensas !!!En la próxima página Mr. Grammar complementará sus explicaciones de CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ...

 

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