If necessary, listen to the audio once again.

 

 

FIRST CERTIFICATE - STEP 1

A.

What is Lesley Morris' book about?

 

B.

What is Wendy Johnson's book about?

 

 

FIRST CERTIFICATE - STEP 2

THOMAS COOK

Thomas Cook (1808-1892), travel agent, inventor of the package tour and father of the modern tourist industry. Mr. Cook organised his first package holiday in when he chartered a for 570 people going to a festival.

He then organised tours to and to resorts. The first record of one of his package tours abroad is of a trip to , France and in about 1855.

LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762) was a writer and .  She went off to in 1716, and later to Italy, where she lived for 22 years.

LADY HESTER STANHOPE

Lady Hester Stanhope (1776-1839) was a niece of a Prime Minister and traveller. She spent 29 years living in the Middle East, calling herself  ' of the '.

FACTS ABOUT EARLY WOMEN TRAVELLERS IN EUROPE

► 1st example: 4th century abbess from who travelled to and visited famous places described in the .

► 15th century: records of women travelling alone on .

► In the 19th century: women travelling in great numbers, either as tourists with Thomas Cook or as travellers. Some went on tours before marrying (e.g. Cook's special tours in the 1890s). Others, not expecting to get , and with money and time to spare, went independently.

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