CAE :: Lesson 14

LOS CURSOS DE INGLES GRATIS PREFERIDOS POR LOS HISPANOHABLANTES

 

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Use of English

Para que este curso CAE ADVANCED te resulte efectivo, trata de cumplir estos pasos: 

1.

Lee aquí las instrucciones de este curso y conoce aquí los símbolos que lo componen.

2.

Lee aquí si no ves las consolas de audio o no escuchas el sonido de las lecciones.

3.

Realiza todas las actividades de cada unidad de estudio y consulta las respuestas.

4.

Puedes consultar el diccionario Babylon ubicado en la parte superior de la columna derecha.

5.

Solicita aquí tu examen final cuando termines las 40 lecciones y el test parcial de este curso.

 

Ellipsis and substitution

 

 

 

This is a new grammar for you. Let us check all about it...

ELLIPSIS: LEAVING OUT SUBJECTS AND AUXILIARIES.

After and, but, and or we often leave out a repeated subject or a repeated subject and auxiliary verb, especially when the clauses are short. After then we can also leave out a repeated subject pronoun.

1.

He got up and (he) had a shower.

2.

She came to the meeting but (she) didn't say anything.

3.

We should phone him or (we should) send him an email.

4.

We usually have dinner at 10.00, and then (we) watch TV.

You cannot leave out the subject pronoun after before, after, because, when, and while.

1.

They locked the door and windows before they left.

2.

We'll have a look at the photos after we finish dinner.

3.

He's stressed because he has too much work.

4.

She was horrified when she saw the mess he had left.

5.

I met Sam while I was working in Italy.

ELLIPSIS: LEAVING OUT VERB PHRASES OR ADJECTIVES

We often leave out a repeated verb phrase or adjective, and just repeat the auxiliary or modal verb, or the verb be, e.g. Laura has never been to the States but her sister has  been there ; Gary thinks he's right, but he isn't right. If the verb we don't want to repeat is the present or past simple, we substitute the verb with do / does / did.

1.

Laura has never been to the States, but her sister has.

2.

Gary thinks he's right, but he isn't.

3.

I didn't like the film, but Mike did.

4.

They said I would love the film, but I don't think I would.

We can use a different auxiliary or modal verb from that used in the first part of the sentence.

1.

I thought I would be able to come tonight, but in fact I can't.

2.

I know you've never learned to drive, but I think you should have.

3.

A: You must see his latest film!
B: I already have.

We can also leave out a repeated verb phrase after the infinitive with to. This is called a reduced infinitive, e.g. I haven't been to Egypt, but I'd love to (go).

1.

I haven't been to Egypt, but I'd love to.

2.

The students cheated in the exam, even though I told them not to.

SUBSTITUTION: SO AND NOT.

We often use so instead of repeating a whole positive clause after verbs of thinking (assume, believe, expect, guess, hope, imagine, presume, suppose, think) and also after be afraid, appear / seem and say.

1.

I'll have finished the work by Friday, or at least I hope so.

2.

A: Will you be working on Saturday?
B: I suppose so, unless we get everything done tomorrow.

3.

Mark loves animals, and his sister even more so.

With negative clauses we use positive verb + not ( e.g. I hope not) with be afraid, assume, guess, hope, presume, and suspect. We normally use negative verb + so (e.g. I don't think so) with the verbs believe, expect, imagine, and think.

1.

A: Do you think it'll rain tonight?
B: I hope not.

2.

A: She's not very likely to pass, is she?
B: No, I'm afraid not.

3.

The children may be back, but I don't think so.

4.

I know she liked the present, even though she didn't say so.

On the next page you will be able to practise this grammar.

 
 

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