Answers Activity 4


The 20th century had a change between science and society.


In World War I scientists died in the trenches. In World War II they were

exempted as national treasures and committed to secrecy.

The explanation is not hard to find: governments came to believe that

research can produce practical improvements. The belief


was reinforced by developments such as the of nuclear


physics to the production of atomic weapons.

Science became so identified with practical benefits that the

of technology on science is commonly assumed to be a


relationship and a single enterprise. Science and technology


are assumed to be almost twins.


The belief in the of science and technology is now petrified


in the definition of technology as applied science, and most

reports are, in fact, often accounts of engineering rather than


scientific achievements. The belief, however, is an aircraft of today's

cultural attitudes without warrant on the record. Although the


record shows that in the earliest civilizations under the


of pharaohs and kings, whenever centralized states arose, knowledge

of nature was exploited for useful purposes.


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