CPE :: Lesson 10

LOS CURSOS DE INGLES GRATIS PREFERIDOS POR LOS HISPANOHABLANTES

 

LECCION 10 - PAGINA 4   índice del curso   página anterior   página siguiente

 

Affixes and inflections: Spelling rules

 

 

 

Affixes are either prefixes [syllables added before the word: dispose, propose) or suffixes (syllables added after the word: expectant, expectancy, expectation).

IMPORTANT: In the CPE exam spellings must be correct for the answer to be considered correct. Below are some spelling rules when adding affixes.

DOUBLE THE FINAL CONSONANT WHEN YOU ADD
ED, ING, ER OR EST TO ...

1) A one-syllable word which ends in consonant-vowel consonant:

run - runner, clap - clapping (but bend - bending, strange - stranger, bad - badly, etc.). But final w, x and y are never doubled: flowed, taxing.

2) Verbs of two or more syllables which end in consonant-vowel-consonant and the final syllable is stressed:

occur - occurrence, forget - forgetting, admit - admittance.
(but forgetful, developing).

3) Verbs which end in "l" after one vowel in British English (in American English they may not double):

travel - traveller, cancel - cancellation.

DON'T DOUBLE THE FINAL CONSONANT WHEN ...

1) There are two final consonants:

disappoint - disappointment

2) There are two vowels before the final consonant:

disappear - disappearance

3) The verb ends in a vowel:

interfere - interference

4) The stress is not on the final syllable:

deepen - deepening

CHANGE Y  TO I ...

1) In words which end in y after a consonant, the y becomes i when a suffix is added:

happy - happiness; try - trial / tries; study - studious;
family - familiar; rely reliance

2) But note these exceptions:

i becomes y with –ing: lie - lying; die - dying

dry - drier / drily but dryness; shy - shyness / shyly; day - daily

DROP THE FINAL –E ...

1) If there is a consonant before it and the suffix begins with a vowel {-er -ed, -ing, -ance. -alien, etc.):

nonsense - nonsensical; amaze - amazing; sane - sanity

Note these exceptions: words ending in –ce, –ge and -ee:

noticeable; knowledgeable; disagreeable

2) The final -e is not dropped when the suffix begins with a consonant:

safe - safety; arrange - arrangement; disgrace - disgraceful
(exception: argue - argument).

ADDING PREFIXES ...

When a prefix is added (before the word), the spelling does not change, e g. with dis-, un- and ir-:

appoint - disappoint; satisfied - dissatisfied; truthful - untruthful; necessary - unnecessary; relevant - irrelevant.

Note: Use il-, im- and ir- (not in-) before words beginning with l, m, p or r = illegible, immodest, immigrant, impractical, irresponsible.

On the next page you will be able to practise some CPE typical errors.

 

LECCION 10 - PAGINA 4   índice del curso   página anterior   página siguiente