CPE :: Lesson 18

LOS CURSOS DE INGLES GRATIS PREFERIDOS POR LOS HISPANOHABLANTES

 

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Use of English

Para que este curso CPE PROFICIENCY resulte efectivo, cumple estos pasos: 

1.

Este curso tiene dos alternativas para escuchar el audio de las lecciones:

a.

Pulsa este ícono si navegas con un dispositivo móvil, iPAD o tablet.

b.

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2.

Realiza todas las actividades y ejercicios de cada unidad de estudio.

3.

  Pulsa este ícono para abrir y consultar las respuestas correctas.

4.

Pulsa el enlace índice del curso – ubicado en la parte superior e inferior de cada página – para pasar a una nueva lección.

5.

Consulta el diccionario Babylon ubicado arriba de la columna derecha.

6.

Lee aquí las instrucciones del curso y conoce aquí sus símbolos.

7.

Lee aquí si no ves las consolas de audio o no escuchas el sonido.

8.

Solicita aquí tu examen final sólo cuando hayas...

a.

... completado las 40 lecciones y el test parcial que componen este curso.

b.

... alcanzado los 90 días como estudiante registrado.

 

Common errors

 

 

Pronoun Errors - Part 1/2

This section of our course will review those errors most commonly presented in the CPE and teach you what to look for. We will not review here the basic rules of grammar, such as the formation and use of the different tenses and the passive voice, the subjective and objective cases of pronouns, the position of adjectives and adverbs, and the like. We assume that a candidate for the CPE is familiar with basic grammar, and we will concentrate on error recognition based on that knowledge.

1. Errors in pronoun subject–object

Check if a pronoun is the SUBJECT or the OBJECT of a verb or preposition.

INCORRECT

All of us – Fred, Jane, Alice, and me – were late.

CORRECT

All of us – Fred, Jane, Alice, and Iwere late.

INCORRECT

How could she blame you and he for the accident?

CORRECT

How could she blame you and him for the accident?

2. Errors with WHO and WHOM

When in doubt about the correctness of WHO/WHOM, try substituting the subject/object of a simpler pronoun to clarify the meaning:

I don't know who/whom Sarah meant.

Try substituting he/him; then rearrange the clause in its proper order:
he/him Sarah meant / Sarah meant him

Now it is clear that the pronoun is the object of the verb meant, so whom is called for.

CORRECT:  I don't know whom Sarah meant.

ANOTHER EXAMPLE:
There was a discussion as to who/whom was better suited.

Try substituting she/her.
she was better suited / her was better suited

Here the pronoun is the subject of the verb suited:

CORRECT:  There was a discussion as to who was better suited.

 

3. Errors of pronoun subject–verb agreement

Check if the pronoun and its verb agree in number.
Remember that the following are singular:

anyone
anything
each
either
everyone
everything
neither
no one
nothing
what
whatever
whoever

Remember that the following are plural:

both
few

many

several

others

INCORRECT

John is absent, but a few of the class is here.

CORRECT

John is absent, but a few of the class are here.

INCORRECT

Everyone on the project have to come to the meeting.

CORRECT

Everyone on the project has to come to the meeting.

INCORRECT

Either of those dresses are suitable for the party.

CORRECT

Either of those dresses is suitable for the party.

INCORRECT

Neither of them are experts on the subject.

CORRECT

Neither of them is an expert on the subject.

NOTE: The forms "either ... or" and "neither ... nor" are singular and take a singular verb. For reasons of diction, however, if the noun immediately preceding the verb is plural, use a plural verb. An English speaker finds it difficult to pronounce a singular verb after a plural subject, as in "... they is coming", even though "they" is preceded by "Neither he nor ..."

Either his parents or he is bringing it.
Either he or his parents are bringing it.

Neither his parents nor he was there.
Neither he nor his parents were there.

This revision will be continued in Lesson 22.

 

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